(December 2002-March 2003)
Armenia: In presidential elections held on February 19, incumbent president Robert Kocharyan (independent) received 48 percent of the votes, Stepan Demirchyan of the People’s Party of Armenia won 27 percent, and Artashes Geghamyan of the Law and Unity Party won 17 percent. In the March 5 runoff, Kocharyan was reelected to the presidency with 67.5 percent of the vote. International observers said the vote had serious flaws. The opposition alleged that soldiers cast multiple ballots in various precincts and that opposition representatives were forced to leave during the count.
Benin: Legislative elections were scheduled for March 30. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Djibouti: In the country’s first full multiparty parliamentary elections, held on January 10, the ruling four-party Union for the Presidential Majority won 63 percent of the vote and received all 65 seats in the National Assembly. The Union for Democratic Change won 37 percent of the vote but received no seats under Djibouti’s electoral system, because it failed to win a majority in any constituency.
El Salvador: Legislative elections were scheduled for March 16. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Estonia: In March 2 elections to the 101-seat State Council, the Estonian Center Party, led by former communist and prime minister Edgar Savisaar, won 28 seats. The new Union for the Republic-Res Publica won 27 seats, the Estonian Reform Party of outgoing prime minister Siim Kallas won 18 seats, and the Estonians United People’s Party won 14 seats. The Fatherland Union and the Moderates won 7 seats each. [End Page 181]
Kenya: In presidential elections held on December 27, opposition leader Emilio Mwai Kibaki of the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) received 62 percent of the vote, defeating Uhuru Kenyatta of the Kenya African National Union (KANU)—outgoing president Daniel arap Moi’s hand-picked successor. In legislative elections held on the same day, NARC won 132 of the 224 seats, KANU won 68, and the Forum for the Restoration of Democracy for the People won 15. This was the first election that the KANU has lost since Kenya’s independence in 1963.
Kiribati: In legislative elections held on November 29 and December 6, the Supporters of the Truth party won 17 of 41 seats, while the Blessings of the Meeting House party (MTM) won 16. On February 25, incumbent president Teburoro Tito of the MTM was reelected to a third term.
Lithuania: In December 22 presidential elections, incumbent president Valdas Adamkus (independent) won 35.3 percent, while former prime minister Rolandas Paksas of the Liberal Democratic Party received 19.7 percent. In the January 5 second round, however, Paksas won 55 percent of the vote, ousting Adamkus from office.
Madagascar: In December 15 elections to the 160-seat National Assembly, the I Love Madagascar party won 103 seats and the National Union party won 22 seats. The remaining seats were split among minor parties and independents.
Micronesia: In March 4 voting for the 14-member Congress, only independents were elected. No parties exist in Micronesia.
Montenegro: In December 22 elections to the 77-seat National Assembly, the Democratic List for a European Montenegro won 39 seats and the coalition Together for Change won 30. In presidential elections held on the same day, Filip Vujanoviæ of the Democratic Party of Socialists-Social Democratic Party coalition won more than 80 percent of the vote, but results were invalidated by Montenegrin law because voter turnout was less than 50 percent. Vujanoviæ won a similar share in a second round on February 9, but the results were likewise invalidated. A third round is scheduled for May. The turnout requirement having been discarded, a candidate must now simply win more than half of the votes cast.
Seychelles: In December 4-6 legislative elections, the Seychelles People’s Progressive Front won 54 percent and 23 seats, while the Seychelles National Party won 42 percent and 11 seats.
South Korea: In December 19 presidential elections, Roh Moo-hyun of outgoing president Kim Dae Jung’s Millennium Democratic Party won [End Page 182] with 48.9 percent of the vote. Lee Hoi-chang of the Grand National Party came in second with 46.6 percent.
(April 2003-March 2004)
Antigua and Barbuda: parliamentary, March 2004
Argentina: presidential, 27 April 2003; legislative, October 2003
Armenia: parliamentary, 25 May 2003
Azerbaijan: presidential, October 2003
Belize: parliamentary, August 2003
Cambodia: parliamentary, 27 July 2003
El Salvador: presidential, March 2004
Guatemala: presidential and legislative, November 2003
Guinea: presidential, December 2003
Haiti: parliamentary, June 2003
Jordan: parliamentary, 17 June 2003
Kuwait: parliamentary, June 2003
Liberia: presidential and legislative, 14 October 2003
Malawi: presidential and legislative, June 2003
Maldives: presidential, October 2003
Marshall Islands: legislative, November 2003
Mauritania: presidential, December 2003
Mexico: legislative, 6 July 2003
Micronesia: presidential, May 2003
Nigeria: presidential, 12 April 2003; legislative 19 April 2003
Paraguay: presidential and legislative, 27 April 2003
Russia: parliamentary, 14 December 2003; presidential, 14 March 2004
Rwanda: parliamentary, July 2003
Sao Tomé and Príncipe: parliamentary, 13 April 2003
Swaziland: parliamentary, September 2003
Taiwan: legislative, December 2003; presidential, March 2004
Thailand: parliamentary, March 2004
Yemen: parliamentary, 27 April 2003
Election Watch provides reports of recently decided and upcoming elections in developing nations and the postcommunist world. Elections in nondemocratic nations are included when they exhibit a significant element of genuine competition or, in the case of upcoming elections, when they represent an important test of progress toward democracy. Much of the data for Election Watch is provided by the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES), a private, nonprofit education and research foundation that assists in monitoring, supporting, and strengthening the mechanics of the electoral process worldwide. For additional information, contact: IFES, 1101 15th Street, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20005; (202) 828-8507; www.ifes.org.